Download Aidos: The Psychology and Ethics of Honour and Shame in by Douglas L. Cairns PDF

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By Douglas L. Cairns

This can be the 1st learn in English to envision the most an important phrases in Greek moral and social discourse, aidos, inside quite a lot of Greek literature. regularly rendered "shame," "modesty," or "respect," aidos is likely one of the such a lot elusive and tough Greek phrases to translate. Dr. Cairns discusses the character and alertness of aidos and different proper phrases in a couple of authors; with specific emphasis on their manifestations in epic, tragedy, and philosophy. He indicates that the essence of the idea that is to be present in its courting with Greek values of honor, during which context it may realize and reply to the dignity of either the self and others. It hence includes either self- and different- concerning habit, aggressive and cooperative values.

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Be that as it may, the war ended in Eretrian defeat, Lefkandi (which had probably been the site of early Eretria) was abandoned, the community had crumbled. The strains of war brought other readjustments elsewhere, and something more like the city-state structure of later centuries began to appear. It would not be absurd to see these same strains as in some measure an explanation of the other phenomenon of the late eighth century, a second and much greater wave of emigration, from the mainland, from Ionia and the islands.

Greater cohesion here encourages belief in greater cohesion elsewhere and poses questions about the political unification of Attica under Athens, about the relationship between Sparta and other communities in Laconia in the first two centuries or so after its Dorian foundation in the late ninth century, about the Theban expansion in Boeotia in the sixth century, and so on. Answers would be premature, but the questions are there. More immediately relevant is the disintegration of the Euboean ‘organization’ in the late eighth century.

Being Greeks, they exploited all to their profit and their progress. Artists were captivated by oriental motifs, arms makers by oriental weaponry, traders by hauls of metal, timber or grain, poor farmers by the chance to emigrate, richer farmers by the chance to grow crops that would sell abroad (wine and oil), the sophisticated by different kinds of political life, poets and thinkers and businessmen by the alphabet—above all, everyone by the dawning of the idea that other places existed and might have something to contribute, material or mental.

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