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By A. B. Bosworth

During this examine, Bosworth appears at Alexander the Great's actions in primary Asia and Pakistan, drawing a bleak photo of bloodbath and repression resembling the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He investigates the evolution of Alexander's perspectives of empire and thought of common monarch, and records the illustration of Alexander through historians of antiquity. The publication is directed to experts and common readers alike.

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71 Xen. Anab. 5. 6. 13: 'expert because of their practice' (dia zrjv zQiprjv ixavovg). Xen. Anab. 4. 3. 2. Small-scale skirmishes are attested at 4. 1. 7, 11-12, 18, 24-8, none involving any serious casualties but cumulatively exhausting. Later {Anab. 31) he comments that the armament of the Carduchi was only appropriate for hit-and-run tactics in the mountains, not for close combat. 73 Xen. Anab. 3. 5-9, 4. 23-4 (500 casualties). 74 Xen. Anab. 4. 7. 2-14; 5. 2. 3-27 (sieges); 4. 8. 8-19; 5. 4.

6; 7. 2; 8. 3, 8). 83 See below, Ch. 3, pp. 94-7; Ch. 5, pp. 133-4330 The Shield of Achilles 29 it went a distinct lack of respect for life. Alexander had a short way with horse thieves, at least when his favourite stallion, Bucephalas, was stolen. His love for the animal is not in doubt, nor is his ruthlessness in face of the loss. 84 There is also some deterioration in 'the world where promises were kept'. 87 Alexander certainly behaved as though he felt no binding moral constraints, and by the end of his reign he was able to revoke one of the foundation clauses of the Corinthian League, a compact sanctioned by his father and himself, and demand by edict the restoration of exiles throughout the Greek world.

There are indications that Hermolaus' lover and confederate, Sostratus, had his own reasons for enmity and orchestrated the entire conspiracy, but the precise motives are lost. All that we know is that it was a delicate time. The king's experiment with proskynesis, ceremonial prostration, had recently proved a fiasco. It had offended the moral and religious sensibilities of his Macedonians and encountered serious opposition. Now that opposition was compounded by a plot against his life organized by the youngest members of his court.

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