By Barend J. van Royen, Ben A. C. Dijkmans
The 1st and simply interdisciplinary consultant devoted to the topic, this reference leads readers during the pathogenic, genetic, medical, and biomechanical features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and addresses matters regarding results overview, clinical therapy, surgical problems, ailment administration, and genetics.
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Additional info for Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diagnosis and Management
A case–control study examining SNPs within the IL-1RN gene also noted a signiﬁcant association with AS in two SNPs in exon 6 of the gene (140). Allele 2 of IL-1RN VNTR is associated with an increase in IL-1RA production, which would be expected to inhibit the action of the pro-inﬂammatory cytokine IL-1, which is contrary to the expectations in AS. It is possible that the association with IL-1RN reﬂects linkage disequilibrium with a nearby gene, such as another gene encoded within the IL-1 complex on chromosome 2.
Leden I. Did Bechterew describe the disease which is named after him? A question raised due to the centennial of his primary report. Scand J Rheumatol 1994; 23:42–45. 41. Bechterew W. Von der Verwachsung oder Steiﬁgkeit der Wirbelsa¨ule. Deutsche Zeitschrift fu¨r Nervenheilkunde 1897; 11:327–337. 42. Bechterew W. Neue Beobachtungen mit patologisch-anatomische Undersuchungen u¨ber Steiﬁgkeit der Wirbelsa¨ule. Deutsche Zeitschrift fu¨r Nervenheilkunde 1899; 15:45–57. ¨ ber ankylosirende Entzu¨ndung der Wirbelsa¨ule und der grossen Erxtre43.
Indeed, enteric infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AS in genetically susceptible hosts (66,67). Furthermore, observation of a close link between inﬂammatory bowel disease and AS suggested that normal gut bacteria might stimulate the immune system once the mucosal barrier was broken (68). REFERENCES 1. Rogers J, Watt I, Dieppe P. Palaeopathology of spinal osteophytosis, vertebral ankylosis, ankylosing spondylitis, and vertebral hyperostosis.